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文史小知识东汉知识分子的骨头有多硬?

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更新时间:2016-10-27 15:10:11

中国的学生运动可能就是由东汉的读书人开创的。冀州刺史朱穆为人刚直,公元153年,他因为反抗宦官,遭到残酷打击报复。

中国的学生运动可能就是由东汉的读书人开创的。冀州刺史朱穆为人刚直,公元153年,他因为反抗宦官,遭到残酷打击报复。太学生刘陶奋然拍案而起,率领数千名太学生向皇帝上书,皇帝释放了朱穆。162年,徐璜等宦官诬陷名臣皇甫规,又一次激怒了太学生。太学生张凤等三百余人上书救援,桓帝不得不又赦免了皇甫规,让他回家。

东汉末期的“党人事件”影响更为深远。东汉宦官发起了两次迫害士人的“党锢之祸”。166年,宦官集团对知识分子反对派,也就是“党人”发动了一次大规模的迫害,抓捕二百余人。将“党人”的领袖李膺“禁锢终身”。但这并没有吓倒读书人,李膺被罢后,威信更高,被士人列为当朝“八俊”之首,成了道德旗帜。这就是第一次“党锢之祸”。三年以后,宦官又掀起了规模更大的打击。李膺、杜密等百余人被下狱处死。各地陆续被逮捕、杀死、流徙、囚禁的士人达到六七百名。史称第二次“党锢之祸”。

经过这场浩劫,天下敢言的儒生几乎被一网打尽。虽然政治抗争最后以失败而告终,但是东汉知识分子那种“杀身以求仁”的气节留下了不可磨灭的光辉。当时的言论以及日后的史学家多同情士大夫一党,并认为“党锢之祸”伤了汉朝根本,为黄巾之乱和汉朝的最终灭亡埋下伏笔。

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